Community Capitals

This page includes resources, calendar items, publications and archives related to the Community Capitals Framework (CCF). Both the Center and a number of our partners now use the CCF to map strategies and impact and in our evaluation, research, and outreach efforts.

Community Capitals diagramCornelia and Jan Flora (2008) developed the Community Capitals Framework as an approach to analyze how communities work. Based on their research to uncover characteristics of entrepreneurial and sustainable communities, they found that the communities most successful in supporting healthy sustainable community and economic development paid attention to all seven types of capital: natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built. In addition to identifying the capitals and the role each plays in community economic development, this approach also focuses on the interaction among these seven capitals as well as how investments in one capital can build assets in others. The seven capitals include:

  • Natural capital: Those assets that abide in a location, including resources, amenities and natural beauty.

  • Cultural capital: Reflects the way people “know the world” and how to act within it. Cultural capital includes the dynamics of who we know and feel comfortable with, what heritages are valued, collaboration across races, ethnicities, and generations, etc. Cultural capital influences what voices are heard and listened to, which voices have influence in what areas, and how creativity, innovation, and influence emerge and are nurtured. Cultural capital might include ethnic festivals, multi-lingual populations or a strong work ethic.

  • Human capital: The skills and abilities of people, as well as the ability to access outside resources and bodies of knowledge in order to increase understanding and to identify promising practices. Human capital also addresses leadership’s ability to “lead across differences,” to focus on assets, to be inclusive and participatory, and to be proactive in shaping the future of the community or group. 

  • Social capital: Reflects the connections among people and organizations or the social glue to make things happen.

    • Bonding social capital refers to those close ties that build community cohesion.
    • Bridging social capital involves weak ties that create and maintain bridges among organizations and communities.
  • Political capital: The ability to influence standards, rules, regulations and their enforcement. It reflects access to power and power brokers, such as access to a local office of a member of Congress, access to local, county, state, or tribal government officials, or leverage with a regional company. 
  • Financial capital: The financial resources available to invest in community capacity building, to underwrite businesses development, to support civic and social entrepreneurship, and to accumulate wealth for future community development.

  • Built capital: The infrastructure that supports the community, such as telecommunications, industrial parks, mainstreets, water and sewer systems, roads, etc. Built capital is often a focus of community development efforts.

Calendar

  • 2008: November 13-14, 5th Annual Community Capitals Framework Institute

 

Publications (including articles, book chapters, presentations)

  • Flora, J.L., C.B. Flora, F. Campana, M. Garcia Bravo, and E. Fernandez-Baca. 2006. "Social Capital and Advocacy Coalitions: Examples of Environmental Issues from Ecuador." Pp. 287-297 in R.E. Rhoades (ed.) Development with Identity: Community, Culture and Sustainability in the Andes. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing.
  • Fey, S., C. Bregendahl, and C.B. Flora, 2006. “The Measurement of Community Capitals through Research: A Study Conducted for the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation by the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development.” Online Journal of Rural Research and Policy 1. Available at http://www.ojrrp.org/issues/2006/01/index.html.
  • Emery, M., S. Fey, and C.B. Flora, 2006. “Using Community Capitals to Build Assets for Positive Community Change.” CD Practice 13. http://www.comm-dev.org.
  • Emery, M. and C.B. Flora. 2006. "Spiraling-Up: Mapping Community Transformation with Community Capitals Framework." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society 37: 19-35. http://www.ncrcrd.iastate.edu/pubs/flora/spiralingup.htm.
  • C.B. Flora and J.L. Flora. 2005. "Creating Social Capital." Pp. 39-63 in J. Pretty (ed.) The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Agriculture. London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
  • Flora, C.B. and A. Thiboumery. 2005. “Community Capitals: Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Dry Areas.” Annals of Arid Zone 45 (3-4): 1-2. (Published in 2006).
  • Flora, C.B. and J.L. Flora. “Bonding and Bridging Social Capital in Communities with Latino In-Migrants.” Cambio de Colores (Change of Colors): Latinos in Missouri: Gateway to a New Community. University of Missouri, St. Louis, March 10, 2004. http://www.cambiodecolores.org/2004/Papers/Flora_SocialCapital_files/frame.htm.
  • Flora, J.L., C.B. Flora, 2004. “Building Community in Rural Areas of the Andes.” Pp. 523-542 in Raul Atria and Marcelo Siles, Compilers. Social Capital and Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean: towards a New Paradigm. Santiago Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and Michigan State University, January 2004. Originally published as "Desarrollo comunitario en las zonas rurales de los Andes." Pp. 555-578 in Capital Social y Reducción la Pobreza en América Latina y el Caribe: En Busca de un Nuevo Paradigma. Raúl Atria and Marcelo Siles, Compiladores. Santiago, Chile: Comisicona para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) y Michigan State University, 2003.
  • Flora, C.B. 2004. “Community Dynamics and Social Capital.” Pp. 93-107 in Agroecosystems Analysis. D. Rickert and C. Francis (eds.) Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Crop Science Society of America, Inc., Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
  • Flora, C.B. and J.L. Flora, 2003. “Social Capital.” Pp. 214-227 in Challenges for Rural America in the Twenty-First Century. David L. Brown and Louis E. Swanson (eds.) University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Flora, J.L. and C.B. Flora. 2003. "Desarrollo comunitario en las zonas rurales de los Andes." Pp. 555-578 in Capital social y reducción de la pobreza en Améica Latin y el Caribe: en busca de un Nuevo paradigma. R. Atria and M. Siles (eds.) Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and Michigan State University.
  • Flora, C.B. “National Rural Microenterprise Policy: Entrepreneurship and Community.” Twelfth Annual Conference of the Association for Enterprise Opportunity, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, May 21, 2002. http://social.capital.unl.edu/AEOPresent_files/v3_document.htm.
  • Flora, C.B. 2002. “Social Capital is Critical Even in State of High Alert.” Rural Development News. 25 (3): 1-2. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/centers/rdev/newsletter/Vol25No3-2001/socialcap.html.
  • Flora, C.B., J.L. Flora, F. Campana, and E. Fernández-Baca. 2000. “The Advocacy Coalition Framework: A Theoretical Frame for SANREM to Address Policy Change and Learning.” Pp. 47-51 in Cultivating Community Capital for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: Experiences from the SANREM CRSP. K. Cason (ed.) Watkinsville, GA: SANREM CRSP. http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/database/PDF/coalitions.pdf.
  • Flora, J.L., M.G. Bravo, C.B. Flora, S.A. Bonilla. 2001. “Community Sustainability in An Ecuadorian Landscape: The Role of Economic, Human, Environmental and Social Capital.” Pp. 291-313 in Bridging Human and Ecological Landscapes: Participatory Research and Eco-Development in an Andean Region. R. Rhoades (ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
  • Flora, J.L., M.G. Bravo, C.B. Flora and S.A. Bonilla. 2001. “Sostenibilidad comunitaria en un paisaje ecuatoriano: el rol del capital económico, humano, ambiental y social.” Pp. 341-368 in Teniendo Puentes Entre Los Paisajes Humanos Y Naturales: La Investigación Participativa y el Desarrollo Ecológical en una Frontera Agricola Andina. R. E. Rhoades (ed.) Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala.
  • Flora, C.B., J.L. Flora, F. Campana, and E. Fernández-Baca. 2000. “The Advocacy Coalition Framework: A Theoretical Frame for SANREM to Address Policy Change and Learning.” Pp. 47-51 in Cultivating Community Capital for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: Experiences from the SANREM CRSP. K. Cason (ed.) Watkinsville, GA: SANREM CRSP. http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/database/PDF/coalitions.pdf.
  • Flora, C.B., J.L. Flora, F. Campana, M.G. Bravo and E. Fernández-Baca. 2000. “Social Capital and Advocacy Coalitions: Examples from Ecuador.” Pp. 53-62 in Cultivating Community Capital for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: Experiences from the SANREM CRSP. K. Cason (ed.) Watkinsville, GA: SANREM CRSP. http://www.sanrem.uga.edu/sanrem/database/PDF/capital.pdf.
  • Flora, C.B. 1998. “Sustainable Production and Consumption Patterns: Community Capitals.” Pp. 115-122 in The Brundtland Commission’s Report—Ten Years. G. B. Softing, G. Benneh, K. Hindar, L. Walloe, and A. Wijkman (eds.) Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
  • Flora, C.B. 1997. “Building Social Capital: The Importance of Entrepreneurial Social Infrastructure.” Rural Development News. 21 (2): 1-2. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/centers/rdev/newsletter/june97/build-soc-capital.html
  • Flora, C.B. 1997. “Enhancing Community Capitals: The Optimization Equation.” Rural Development News. 21 (1): 1-2. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/centers/rdev/newsletter/mar97/enhance.comm.cap.html
  • Shields, M.D., C.B. Flora, B. Thomas-Slayter, and G. Buenavista. 1996. “Developing and Dismantling Social Capital: Gender and Resource Management in the Philippines.” Pp. 155-179 in Feminist Political Ecology: Global Perspectives and Local Experience. D. Rocheleau, B. Thomas-Slayter, and E. Wangari (eds.) London: Routledge,
  • Flora, C.B. and J.L. Flora. 1996. “Creating Social Capital: Becoming Native to Place.” Pp. 217-225 in Rooted in the Land: Essays on Community and Place. W. Vitek (ed.) New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Flora, C.B. and J.L. Flora. 1996. “The Past and Future: Social Contract, Social Policy and Social Capital.” Pp. 53-64 in Farm Foundation: Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies 1995. S.A. Halbrook and C.E. Merry (eds.) Coak Brook, IL: Farm Foundation.
  • Flora, C.B. 1995. “Social Capital and Sustainability: Agriculture and Communities in the Great Plains and the Corn Belt.” Research in Rural Sociology and Development: A Research Annual. 6: 227-246. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/centers/rdev/pubs/flora/soccap.htm.

 


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